Barnard mentioned in his book that when the designers are anonymous, besides approaches other than hermeneutics, reconstruction of intentions is required in order to understand in a hermeneutic way.

As for HCI design, it is often the case that too many people are involved in the process of design, or designers are anonymous.  Does it mean that when we do critique in a hermeneutic way, we need to often reconstruct the intentions, life-world and horizons of the designers like what we did to the French song in class?  If so, do you guys have any tips how to reconstruct this in terms of HCI design so that the reconstruction can be more helpful for critique?

Another quick question: are hermeneutics and phenomenology just two terms for the same thing? Are structuralism and semiotics the same thing?