Dunne mentions in the “Design as Text” section of (In)human Factors:

A ‘space’ of chains and layers of meaning between the object and the viewer, continuously expanding with no fixed origin or closure (36).

Writing and reading, the pre-and post-textual, are of equal value, and both writer and reader are required to exert an equal effort of imagination. Similarly, in the case of a design object as text, designer, and viewer play equal roles. This approach lends itself easily to electronic products, because their components can be freely arranged, unlike mechanical products where the arrangement of components is determined by technical constraints: (36)

Reading through this again I wanted to illustrate what I thought was an interesting example that I think fits this quote and that is Second Life. The big part I want to discuss is the bolded text because, quite literally, the designers created a world where the user (viewer) can create within that world. In a sense they end up “playing equal roles” where the user can create an infinite amount of unique objects and actions within the virtual world, a major point being that both the designer and user are creating. Further, because there is no “endgame” in Second Life, the user can continually create and interact with virtual objects and other people in an endless virtual environment where the constraints are limited only to what the game world does and does not offer.

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