This is one of the most interesting article I have ever read for now, and yes, follow the questions the author asked: what is visual culture and who understands visual culture? I would like to start with my own understanding towards what is visual culture. To be short, visual culture exists almost anywhere where visual is emphasized, such as graphic design, film studies, video game studies, media studies, advertising and book studies. All of these stem from 「visual culture」. And I think it is right, or at least reasonable, to say that visual culture is the abstract of visuals, and the specific rules generated by such abstract. (well, sounds like this is the truth everyone knows). On this topic, I once watched an episode of Berger’s 「Ways of Seeing」 on Vimeo (, which is the earliest work on visual culture I can find. I think in this 30 minutes video, it explains well, although not enough yet, what the visual culture is.

So who should understand visual culture? The author of this article presented a very interesting opinion that 「It would be very difficult to argue that none of these writers understands the pieces of visual culture they are engaged with. It would be quite difficult to argue that one of these writers had understood visual culture and that the others had not. But it would be relatively easy to argue that one or more of them has understood it partially, incorrectly or poorly.」 So it seems that author thought all present ideas about visual culture were partial and thus no one really understood what the visual culture is, which for me, at my level, confuse me a lot. I do not actually know what the author means even this section is very short, and it thus leads me to a question of how, or in what ways, to understand visual culture in a concrete manner? And does it really matter if I cannot fully and correctly understand the visual culture as a whole?

The second part, 「Explanation and Understanding: Visual Culture and Social Science」 is even more confusing.