So here is another draft of a draft outline. This is what I have so far. These are some of the things I would like to talk about in my paper though keep in mind that they may not be in the order that I am showing now and I’ll be adding more information as I go:
3rd Wave HCI and Experience Design


McCarthy, John, Wright, Peter. (2004) Technology as Experience. The MIT Press.

  • “We don’t just use or admire technology; we live with it… technology is deeply embedded in our ordinary everyday experience.” (2)
  • “…our interactions with technology can involve emotions, values, ideals, intentions, and strong feelings.” (2)

Nardi, “Play as Aesthetic Experience,” from My Life as a Night Elf Priest, pp. 39-51.

  • “Dewey argued that aesthetic experience is part of ordinary life and should not be confined to viewing the works of a few elite artists presented in museums.” (41)
  • “… active aesthetic experience. He reconceptualized the term aesthetic experience to express an active participatory relation to artful material and collective activity.” (41)

Hassenzahl, “Needs, Affect, and Interactive Products: Facets of User Experience.” Interacting with Computers 22 (2010) 353-362.

  • “Experience is a stream of feelings, thoughts and action; a continuous commentary on our current state of affairs.” (353) [Definition]
  • Pragmatic quality refers to a judgment of a product’s potential to support particular ‘do-goals’ (e.g. to make a telephone call)” (357)
  • Hedonic quality is a judgment with regard to a product’s potential to support pleasure in use and ownership, that is, fulfillment of so-called ‘be-goals’ (e.g. to be admired, to be stimulated)” (357)


Bardzell, Jeffrey. (2011). “Interaction Criticism: An Introduction to the Practice.” Interacting With Computers 23 (2011). 604-621.

  • “As HCI’s cultural goals (and significance!) grows, and in particular as demand grows for thinking in HCI surrounding cultural, aesthetic, affective, ethical, and experiential categories, the field needs to improve its practice of interaction criticism.” (606)
  • “By interaction criticism I mean rigorous interpretive interrogations of the complex relationships between (a) the interface, including its material and perceptual qualities as well as its broader situatedness in visual languages and culture and (b) the user experience, including the meanings, behaviors, perceptions, affects, insights, and social sensibilities that arise in the context of interaction and its outcomes.” (606)
  • “It is a strategy that enables design practitioners to engage with the aesthetics of interaction, helping practitioners cultivate more sensitive, insightful, and imaginative critical reactions to designs and exemplars.” (606)
  • “Speaking generally, criticism refers to an expert of a given domain’s informed exercise of judgment… the expert cultivates a domain-specific capacity for judgment through a lengthy engagement with relevant works/examples, theories, and other expert perspectives, an ongoing engagement that is both sensual/perceptual and intellectual.” (606)
  • “… typically based on a holistic, non-reductive understanding that includes issues such as the following:
    1. The work’s qualities, both sensually and intellectually…
    2. A cultivated awareness of the critic’s own direct sensual, emotional, and intellectual experience engaging with the work/ example…
    3. An awareness of (and taking a position with regard to) the moral or ethical consequences of the work and possible interpretations/uses of it.
    4. Knowledge of related expert perspectives from others, that is, what other critics, experts, and scholars have said about the work or those relevant to it in some way.
    5. Exemplars, that is, other known works/examples that in some interesting or worthwhile way are deemed to be comparable to the work.
    6. An awareness of the work’s position in history and location, including the reception of that artifact
    7. Relevant theories, be they methodological or specific to a type of work and its tradition(s).” (606)

Subspace: Human-Food Interaction and Experience Design


Comber, Rob. (2014). Designing for human-food interaction: An introduction to the special issue on food and interaction design. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 72 (2014) 181–184

  • “…points to the possibility and necessity to see technology and design interventions in this space as more than simply corrective.” (181)
  • Food is, and always will be, something that connects people together and which has the potential to inspire and engage us in new and exciting experiences.” (181)
  • “Thus while food has always been a significant element in community to global cultures, new forms of communication and mobility offer opportunities for extended food expressions and experiences.(181)
  • Human-food interaction requires much more attention to the people and the ways in which they engage with food than efficiencies and novelties new technologies may provide.” (182)

Choi, Jaz Hee-jeong, Comber, Rob, Linehan, Conor, McCarthy, John. (2012).Food for Thought: Designing for Critical Reflection on Food Practices. DIS 2012 (June 11- 15, 2012) 793-794.

  • “Indeed, modern food values are focused
on convenience and effortlessness, overshadowing other values such as environmental sustainability, health and pleasure. The rethinking of how we approach everyday food behaviours appears to be a particularly timely concern.” (793)
  • Food practices encapsulate the broad spectrum of food production, transport, purchasing, preparation, and consumption among others.” (793)
  • “…there is a growing interest in the design
of technologies to support positive food practices. That is, there is an increasing need to address food not only as a ‘problem’ area, where individuals have insufficient knowledge, inadequate nutrition, or inappropriate environmental behaviours.(793)
  • “Critical reflection on food practices opens the possibility to examine how we conceptualise food practices to redress the imbalance towards positive, playful food practices that support issues of health and sustainability through long-term engagement.” (793-794)


Grimes, Andrea, Harper, Richard. (2008). Celebratory Technology: New Directions for Food Research in HCI. CHI 2008, April 5-10, 2008, Florence, Italy.

  • “Socially, food is something that brings people together – individuals interact through and around it.” (1)
  • “In this paper we describe the existing and potential design space for HCI in the area of human-food interaction.” (1)
  • “We present ideas for future work on designing technologies in the area of human-food interaction that celebrate the positive interactions that people have with food as they eat and prepare foods in their everyday lives.” (1)
  • “Given the importance of food in our daily lives, it seems equally important to understand what role technology currently plays with regard to food and indeed what roles it can be imagined to play in the future.” (1)
  • “…our goal is to explore a different path for food research in HCI, one that focuses not on the problems that individuals have with food, but rather on the ways in which people find pleasure and success in their interactions with food.” (1)


Celebratory Design Not Corrective Design

Grimes, Andrea, Harper, Richard. (2008). Celebratory Technology: New Directions for Food Research in HCI. CHI 2008, April 5-10, 2008, Florence, Italy.

  • “…researchers sought to examine how technology might alter human-food interaction… uncertainty would be turned into certainty, inexperience into aptitude. In our mind, the resulting systems are corrective technologies insofar as they attempt to fix undesirable behaviors.” (1)
  • “…HCI community can begin to imagine another, much neglected path of research: one in which individuals’ current experiences with food are seen not as undesirable, but as positive, productive, even delightful. “ (1)
  • “We certainly agree that individuals do encounter problems in their interactions with food, but…they enjoy their food, relish the practice of making it, and above all celebrate the sharing of it.” (1)
  • “In this paper, we want to highlight a whole line of research that has for the most part been neglected within HCI to date.” (1-2)
  • “That is, we will discuss how treating individuals’ interactions with food as positive, as something in which they delight and find pleasure, excitement, and fondness opens up a very different space for technology design.” (2)
  • “This design space is characterized by what we call celebratory technology; technology that celebrates the positive and successful aspects of human behavior.” (2)
  • “By drawing from social science research on how people live with, consume, and conceive of food, we come to suggest six positive aspects of human-food interaction that can be designed for… creativity, pleasure and nostalgia, gifting, family connectedness, trend-seeking behaviors, and relaxation.” (5)
  • “Of course, many of these things are interrelated and rarely occur in isolation…” (5)


Six Positive Aspects of Human-Food Interaction

Grimes, Andrea, Harper, Richard. (2008). Celebratory Technology: New Directions for Food Research in HCI. CHI 2008, April 5-10, 2008, Florence, Italy.


  • “…preparing meals is a way of expressing creativity…cooking process as a way to express themselves imaginatively.” (5)
  • “…we can imagine designing technologies that assume an adept user who enjoys expressing their creativity through cooking…technologies that support them in adapting recipes to fit their personal tastes and personalities and applications that help them explore new flavors and cuisines.” (5)
  • “For example, one idea would be to have an awareness display that shows individuals what other members of their social group are eating for dinner. This application could serve as a stimulus for creativity: as individuals observe the eating practices of others, they may be inspired to create new meal ideas.” (5)
  • “The point here is that the technology is not reversing or mending individuals’ interactions with food. The fact that some cooks use food preparation as a creative outlet is not something that needs to be fixed… we begin to imagine designs that celebrate aspects of human behavior, rather than correct it.” (5)

Pleasure & Nostalgia

  • “Smelling, preparing, touching, and tasting foods, and even remembering past food experiences can evoke emotional responses… In addition to these sensual experiences, foods can also hold symbolic meaning whereby they embody past experiences.” (5)
  • “These memories can bring with them feelings of nostalgia and fondness for the past.” (5)
  • “They examined how individuals subjectively characterize hedonic eating experiences as well as what conditions were needed for eating to be pleasurable. They describe how the features of the physical environment, the nature of the social interaction that surrounds the eating process, and feelings of relaxation can all contribute to individuals feeling that their eating experiences are pleasurable.” (6)
  • “For example, understanding that the physical environment can be an important aspect of pleasurable meals suggests that technologically augmenting tables, chairs, or dinnerware might be a way to provide new hedonic eating experiences for people.” (6)
  • “…memory microwave display…with the memory display, activating the microwave could trigger the display to show photographs from a digital photo album. For example, imagine heating up a meal and having related photographs be displayed (e.g. pictures of grandma are displayed when heating up dishes that she often used to prepare).” (6)
  • “The memory microwave display could augment the process by which foods trigger memories and subsequently emotional responses (such as pleasure) by providing another visual dimension for memories.” (6)
  • “With this type of design idea, the goal is not so much to improve the ways in which people have emotional responses to food, but rather to provide a new way for individuals to experience these emotions.” (6)


  • “Food acts both literally and symbolically as a gift.” (6)
  • “Literally, individuals give gifts of food at holidays and other special occasions. (6)
  • “Symbolically, even when it is not presented as such, food can be a gift. For example, scholars studying the role of gender in food practices have often argued that for some women, the preparation of meals for the family is a means of symbolic gift giving whereby individuals express their love, affection, and sense of caring.” (6)
  • “…food is seen as the ultimate gift because it is both literally and symbolically consumed.” (6)
  • “…food acts as a gift we begin to see how food and the sharing of food can be viewed as precious, as something of symbolic value…does not suggest technological ideas that treat food as an obstacle, or ideas that treat human-food interactions as something that need to be fixed.” (6)

Family Connectedness

  • “The family is an important unit of analysis when considering the social nature of eating… through these patterns and eating norms that families define their identity.” (6)
  • “Shared meals are important to families not simply because they are a time of biological replenishment, but because they are social occasions.” (7)
  • “Since a part of what makes some shared family meals so important is that they are a time for the family to catch up with one another, one design idea is a table display whereby family members post aspects of their day.” (7)
  • “This display would serve as a conversation piece and as a way to augment the discussion with different forms of media. Thus the goal here would not be to fix family communication but rather to augment it by providing a different type of way to engage in social interaction around the dinner table.” (7)
  • “Our own project, HomeBook, is an example of such a display. Here, each member of a family has a space on the screen they can call their own and they can message content to it at their leisure.” (7)


  • “Some individuals use cooking as way to express how hip they are. Riding the waves of culinary trends is a way to show others that one is cultured and modern.” (7)
  • “In various parts of the Western world for example, the emergence of new domestic cooking gadgets, cooking television programs, celebrity chefs, and slick cookbooks can be readily seen. Technologies, media outlets, and media personalities are frequently responsible for setting the trends and influencing consumer behavior.” (7)
  • “…we wish to point out that there are a number of people who are embracing the current trends in domestic cooking by preparing chic dishes, purchasing fashionable kitchen gadgets, or watching cooking programs on the television.” (7)
  • “…then we can imagine a technological artifact that provides a visual representation of the trends that one samples. For example, one design idea is a simple electronic scrapbook that allows individuals to document the trends they have been excited about.” (7)
  • “Such a display could be a fun way for an individual to reflect on the fads that they have participated in over time and might also serve as a whimsical talking piece for people visiting that person’s home.” (7)


  • “…for some individuals cooking and eating are methods of relaxation. For example, the website is an example of an online community devoted to blogs, message boards, and multimedia content about food. On this website discussion threads have been created where individuals discuss how cooking and baking help them relieve stress. Part of what can make cooking relaxing is the physical actions that go into preparing foods.” (7)
  • “Furthermore, intimate conversations with friends and family can occur in the kitchen while meals are being prepared…‘kitchen therapy’. It is in these over food and through these conversations that the stresses of the day can be diffused.” (7)
  • “The process of eating food can of course also be relaxing.” (7)
  • “One woman noted that drinking a cup of coffee in the morning gave her a few moments of time to be still that helped her feel ready to take on the day. Thus, food and beverages can help facilitate relaxation through their various properties and also through the atmosphere they create.” (8)
  • “Music can often help in setting a mood…Thus, we see potential in exploring systems that couple music with food in a variety of ways.” (8)
  • “Other variants could include a system that seeks music with certain beats and rhythms—food associated with parties and large events having pop and rock, haute cuisine tending towards classical music.” (8)

Related Works


Critique of Two Projects

Food Media

Wei, Jun, Wang, Xuan, Tache, Remi, Peiris, Roshan Lalintha, Choi, Yongsoon, Halupka, Veronica, Koh, Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino, Martinez, Xavier Roman, Cheok, Adrian David. (2011). Food Media: Exploring Interactive Entertainment over Telepresent Dinner. ACE’2011, Lisbon, Portugal.

  • “Food Media” is “an intuitive multimodal interaction platform to engage remote people into social communication and entertainment within the telepresent family dinner context.” (1) It allows food to become “a valuable asset in the computer-mediated entertainment.” (2)
  • It is meant to “derive playful experience from people’s everyday activities” and “supports multiple interaction modalities around food to afford the enjoyable social interactions.” (2)
  • While “Food Media” is to give the chance “for remote families to enjoy shared entertainment” (1), [Criticism] from the pictures in the paper, it looks very technical and clinical. It does not look very fun. It looks like something a person would do in the lab instead of comfortably integrated into their everyday life. [looks more like what engineers enjoy than regular people] [did find other sites about Food Media and will look at later]

Telematic Dinner Party

Barden, Pollie, Comber, Rob, Green, David, Jackson, Daniel, Ladha, Cassim, Bartindale, Tom, Bryan-Kinns, Nick, Stockman, Tony, Olivier, Patrick. (2012). Telematic Dinner Party: Designing for Togetherness through Play and Performance. DIS 2012, June 11-15, 2012, Newcastle, UK. 38- 47.

  • “There has been a recent call in HCI for new approaches to the design of technology for and around food.” (38)
  • “Here we consider, among the others, the creativity, togetherness, pleasure and playfulness, associated with food and mealtime.” (38)
  • “The Telematic Dinner Party (TDP) aims to support remote guests in experiencing a sense of togetherness, and playfulness and sharing in a dinner party.” (38)
  • “TDP provides a space where we can use technology to ‘make the familiar strange.’ In doing so, we can reveal the limits of technological acceptance, performance and the computer mediation of social relationships in a familiar social setting.” (38)
  • “Multimodal technology platform”
  • “…we explore the possibilities and consequences of designing for togetherness, performance and playfulness toward a form of social presence.” (38-39)
  • [Criticism] From the images it looks more people focused that “Food Media”. While they are still exploring the space, they went through several iterations with real people and seemingly real table settings. It has an appearance of what may be found in a dining space.


How Help Inform Future Work

Food Journey