Speaking generally, criticism refers to an expert of a given domain’s informed exercise of judgment; familiar examples include film and literary critics, architectural criticism, and even a qualified Master of Wine’s ability to judge wine. (J. Bardzell, “Interaction Criticism: An Introduction to the Practice,” in Interacting with Computers  23 (2011): 604-621)

A denotation is the dictionary meaning of a word, and thus film and movie have the same denotation… A connotation is any association or implication of the world you use. Film has for many people sophisticated, intellectual connotations, while movie has connotations associated with mass entertainment. Bothe Hollywood and classical carry a number of connotations (commercial or establishment, for instance) that a writer should be aware of when using them. (Timothy Corrigan, A Short Guide to Writing about film, 4th Edition, Ch 5: Style and Structure in Writing)

In one sense, ideology is a more subtle and expansive way of saying politics, at least if we think of politics as the ideas or beliefs on which we base our lives and our visions of the world… In critical writing attuned to ideology, any cultural product or creation carries, implicitly or explicitly ideas about how the world is or should be seen and how men and women should see each other in it.(Timothy Corrigan, A Short Guide to Writing about film, 4th Edition, Ch 4: Six approaches to Writing about film)
Belief about how the world is/ought to be. (class notes)
Ideology is defined by Clark as indicating the existence of “distinct and singular bodies of knowledge”. (Malcolm Barnard, Approaches to Understanding Visual Culture, Ch6: Marxism and the Social History of Art and Design)

The “horizons” in which we always already exist… They are our understanding of the world and they make us what we are. Gadamer calls them “prejudices”… As he says, prejudices are not necessarily unjustified, and in fact “in the literal sense of the word, constitute the initial directness of our whole ability to experience”… Were it not  for these prejudices, we would experience nothing and understand nothing: they open the world up to us “in the first place”… The “horizons” she inhabits, her “life-world“, are not obstacles to her understanding, they are the starting points of her understanding. (Malcolm Barnard, Approaches to Understanding Visual Culture, Ch2 Explanation and understanding: Visual Culture and Social Science)
Horizons were explained as sets of ideas, beliefs, hopes and fears about the world and its contents that made up the individual. (Ch3 Interpretation and the Individual)

Lifeworld may be conceived as a universe of what is self-evident or given, a world that subjects may experience together. (Wikipedia)

Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. (Wikipedia)

Bourgeois: creature of capitalism. Example: someone lacking taste suddenly has money, so he buys taste. ( )

Canon: socially agreed on great list of certain kind of work. (class notes)

Teleology: anything with a fixed end point. (class notes)

Dogmatism: a set of beliefs, not proven ones, you assert as true, all religions are called dogmas. (class notes)

Roland Barthes (1915-80) was one of the people who believed Ferdinand de Saussure ( 1857-1913) when he said thaI semiology was, indeed, the “science that studies the life of signs within society”. (Malcolm Barnard, Approaches to Understanding Visual Culture, Ch2: Explanation and Understanding: Visual Culture and Social Science)

For Peirce, a “sign” or “representamen” is “something which stands to somebody for something in some respect or capacity”… Saussure is limited to one model of the sign: the sign is a unity of signifier and signified… In an iconic sign, the relation between sign and object is one of “likeness”… In an indexical sign, the relation between the sign and the object is an existential, or casual relation… So for example, smoke is a visual index of fire… In a symbol, the sign and the object are connected or related by convention, or “law”. (Malcolm Barnard, Approaches to Understanding Visual Culture, Ch7: Semiology, Iconology and Iconography)

Signifier, signified, signification

Syntagmatic difference is the difference between things, signs, that come before or after one another. Paradigmatic difference is the difference between things, signs, that can replace one another… Syntagmatic difference explains the relations between the Starter, Main and Sweet courses… Paradigmatic difference explains the relations between the choices offered within any one of these courses. (Malcolm Barnard, Approaches to Understanding Visual Culture, Ch7: Semiology, Iconology and Iconography)

Essentialism: there is something essential of being a women that no man in his experience can understand. Refusal strategy helps understanding this.

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